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Assessment is one of the most debated elements by those involved in the educational process, be they teachers, parents or the pupils themselves. Indeed, there is no denying the apprehension or in any case the importance given to moments of questioning and verification and the feeling that the grade is the only element used to measure the value of classroom performance.
The new pedagogical orientations oriented towards the development of transversal competences subvert "the traditional way of conceiving education: instead of focusing exclusively on the 'what' of learning (i.e. the contents), it is also concerned with the 'how' of teaching and thus learning". This paradigm shift is also reflected in the assessment, which obviates mere one-way numerical quantification by introducing other forms of self-assessment or peer assessment or by accompanying the grade with "a summary judgement that reports what the learner is able to do and in what aspects - and in what way - he/she could improve".
Therefore, despite disputes and misunderstandings, the authors argue, "assessment can become an authentic teaching tool, both because it constantly offers tools aimed at improving awareness and learning skills, and because the teacher, through the answers obtained in assessment, has the opportunity to refine teaching design and specific actions aimed at its promotion."